Crowsnest Highway

2.5B BP - 1837
1837 - 1862
1862 - 1872
1872 - 1882
1882 - 1887
1887 - 1890
1890 - 1893
1893 - 1896
1896 - 1898
1898 - 1899
1899 - 1901
1901 - 1903
1903 - 1906
1906 - 1910
1910 - 1913
1913 - 1917
1917 - 1922
1922 - 1930
1930 - 1939
1939 - 1949
1949 - 1962
1962 - 1974
1974 - 2000
2000 - 2010
2010 - 2016

Time Line
for South-western Canada
Page 2 (1837 - 1862)

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1837Recession year.
1837Joe Kipp born at Fort Union on the Missouri River.
1837June 20William IV of England dies.
1837June 24St. Peter’s arrives at Fort Union on the Missouri River carrying small pox. The Mandans quickly infected and soon the horror spreads through surrounding tribes killing between two-thirds to three-quarters of the population.
1838May 30Westminster renews Hudson’s Bay Company’s chartered privilege of exclusive trade rights in Rupert’s Land and Athabaska, and guarantee of exclusive trading rights west of the Continental Divide, for 21 years.
1838Sep. 16Wellington County, Upper Canada (Ontario): James Jerome Hill born.
1838Oct. 10Wednesday. Hudson’s Bay Coy. party with Fathers François Blanchet and Modiste Demers crest the Rocky Mountains.
1838Oct. 14Blanchet and Demers celebrate mass at the Big Bend of the Columbia River.
1838Nov. 11Blanchet and Demers arrive in Ft. Vancouver after travelling overland from Hudson Bay via the Columbia River.
1839George Simpson confirmed in his appointment as Governor-in-Chief of Rupert’s Land.
1839John Galt dies. A.T. Galt to London?
1839Governor Geo. Simpson creates the post of “Recorder of Rupert’s Land” to adjudicate legal disputes in the HBC’s holdings.
1839Jesuit father Modeste Demers leaves his post at the Hudson’s Bay Company’s Fort Vancouver and made his way up the Columbia and the old Brigade Trail into the upper Okanagan valley.
1839Sep. 13John George “Kootenai” Brown born in County Clare, Ireland.
1840Father Modeste Demers again visits the upper Okanagan.
1840Fort Langley burned and rebuilt.
1841James Sinclair guides some 200 settlers from the Hudson’s Bay Company’s settlement on the Red River to Oregon via the Columbia River.
1841George Simpson knighted.
1841George Simpson begins a year-long tour of Hudson’s Bay Company’s dominions, and continues on westward, overland across Siberia to London.
1841Feb. 10Royal assent given to the Act of Union uniting Upper and Lower Canada.
1841Feb. 22At Rocky Mountain House the Methodist missionary Rob’t Terrill Rundle meets his for Blackfoot.
1841Oct. 18Jesuit fathers P-J. de Smet and Nicholas Point established St. Mary’s Mission to the Flatheads in the Bitterroot Valley in what is now western Montana. Begins a four-year program of annual visits into what is today British Columbia.
1841Nov. 20Wilfrid Laurier born in St. Lin, Canada East.
1841SeptemberA resolution passed by the Legislature of the Province of Canada ear-marked money for the creation of the Geological Survey of Canada.
1841Dec. 25“Wolf’s Son” and son Sata of the Inuk’sik Blackfoot band baptised at the Jesuits’ St. Mary’s Mission as “Nicholas” and “Gervais,” respectively.
1842Father Modeste Demers again visits the upper Okanagan.
1842Eugene Sayre Topping born in New York state.
1842Geological Survey of Canada established.
1842Apr. 14 William Edmund Logan appointed director of the Geological Survey of Canada.
1842Aug. 9Ashburton-Webster Treaty concluded. Proclaimed November 10, 1842. Establishes the north-west corner of Lake o’ the Woods as latitude 49º23'55" north and in longitude 95º14'38" west, determines that the Boundary runs south from that point to the 49th degree of parallel and and re-iterates that it runs westward along said parallel to the apex of the Rocky Mountains.
1843Feb. 3William Cornelius Van Horne born.
1843July 5United States citizens declared a provisional government in “Oregon.”
1843OctoberA.T. Galt returns to Canada. Sherbrooke.
1844Archibald McDonald retires as the factor of Fort Colvile.
1844Pierre Chouteau orders Ft. McKenzie abandoned and Ft. Chardon (“Ft. Brulé”) built.
1844SpringSherbrooke, Lower Canada: A.T. Galt appointed Commissioner of the British American Land Company.
1844MarchFr. Nicholas Point of St. Mary’s Mission travels the eastern slope and baptises the first Niitsi-tapi on the Tribe’s home territory.
1844SeptemberArchibald McDonald sees “the Ledge” on the eastern shore of Kootenay Lake.
1844Oct 22(or 23) Louis Riel born at St. Boniface, Rupert’s Land.
1845Jesuit father John Nobili carries on Father Modeste Demers work among the Okanagan Peoples.
1845Lower Canada: Edwd. Hale and Sam’l Brooks organize the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad Company.
1845Small Pox on the Plains reduces the Niitsitapi Inuk’sik (“Small Robes”) band to but 12 families.
1845June 16Lieutenants Henry Jas. Warre and Merwin Vavasour depart Fort Garry overland for Fort Edmonton, cross White Man’s Pass by horse, to Fort Colvile and on to Fort Vancouver.
1845AugustJesuit father Pierre-Jean de Smet first visits Ktunaxa territory. Hikes over Whiteman Pass to winter at Rocky Mountain House and proselytize among the Niitsitapi.
1845Aug. 12Warre and Vavasour arrive at Fort Vancouver.
1846British Army posts 350 to Fort Garry. Mainly 6th Royal Regiment of Foot, with sappers and artillery units. Red jackets.
1846St. Louis, Missouri: Horace E. Dimick casts the “Fort Whoop-Up canon.”
1846The Hudson’s Bay Company builds Fort Kootenay on the Tobacco Plains just below the Boundary. Abandons Kootenai Falls House which Finan McDonald established in 1808 on the Kootenay River near the Jennings Canyon.
1846Pierre Chouteau orders Ft. Chardon (“Ft. Brulé”) abandoned and Ft. Lewis built farther west.
1846U.S. Army builds Ft. Kearny, first of the Oregon Trail posts.
1846Apr. 27U.S. Congress votes to terminate the “joint occupancy” agreement on Oregon.
1846May 28A.C. Anderson, tasked by the Hudson’s Bay Coy. with finding a new Brigade Trail to Fort Kamloops, heads inland from the confluence of the Fraser and the Coquihalla Rivers.
1846June 9Anderson arrives at Fort Kamloops.
1846June 15 Oregon (Buchanan-Pakenham) Treaty concludes, ratified copies exchanged on July 17, proclaimed August 5. Establishes the 49th degree of Parallel as the Boundary west from the Rockies.
1846Dec. 18Paul Kane arrives at Fort Vancouver having travelled overland via the Columbia River.
1847Pierre Chouteau orders Ft. Lewis dismantled and Ft. Clay (renamed “Fort Benton” in 1850) built nearby.
1847Rob’t Terrill Rundle shatters his arm, forcing him to retire to England whence he never returned to the West.
1847Nov. 6A Saturday.
1847Nov. 23Marcus and Narcissa Whitman and 12 or 13 others massacred by Cayuse at the Waillaptu Mission in Oregon.
1848 British Army replaces regular troops in Red River with 200 irregular pensioners. Supposed to be soldier-settlers.
1848SummerHudson’s Bay Company clerk H.N. Peers establishes Fort Hope and sets off to refine the route of Anderson’s Brigade Trail from what is today Hope, B.C., to Fort Kamloops.
1848Aug. 14The U.S. Congress creates Oregon Territory with the previously-elected George Abernethy remaining as governor.
1849Eden Colvile named associate Governor of Rupert’s Land. Takes up residence in Old Fort.
1849Peers’ alignment of the Brigade Trail between Forts Hope and Kamloops adopted for Hudson’s Bay Company service.
1849Niitsi-tapi kill 50 Assiniboine hunters.
1849Lower Canada: A.T. Galt to serve a year in Montréal as Sherbrooke’s Member of the Legislative Assembly of the colony of the United Province of Canada
1849Jan. 13Vancouver’s Island declared a British Colony under stewardship of Hudson’s Bay Coy. Jas. Douglas, chief factor of Hudson’s Bay Company’s Pacific district is appointed acting governor. Royal Grant.
1849MayHBC brings suit against P.G. Sayer for poaching furs in Rupert’s Land. The Recorder of Rupert’s Land, Adam Thom, finds Sayer guilty but has no power to enforce a sentence. Watershed case: With no constabulary to carry out Thom’s sentence, HBC loses de facto legal authority in Rupert’s Land.
1849July 16Richard Blanchard appointed governor of the Colony of Vancouver’s Island.
1849Aug. 1George Mercer Dawson born in Pictou, Nova Scotia. (1901)
1849Aug. 14A Monday. Oregon declared a Territory.
1850Mar. 11Richard Blanchard arrives in Victoria to assume his duties as the Colony of Vancouver’s Island’s first governor.
1850May 24Montréal: Elliott Torrance Galt born.
1850Sep. 7Blackfoot party attacks the the Jesuits’ St. Mary’s Mission in what is now western Montana, running off horses and killing several Native retainers.
1850Sep. 9Utah Territory declared.
1850NovemberRichard Blanchard resigns as Governor of Vancouver’s Island but stays on until replaced.
1851 Jan. 5At Purbrook, Ontario, Samuel Benfield Steele born.
1851Aug. 27Council of Vancouver’s Island created.
1851Sep. 1Jas. Douglas appointed governor of the Colony of Vancouver’s Island
1852Angus McDonald appointed factor of Fort Colvile (to 1871).
1852SeptemberGold rush to Queen Charlotte’s Island.
1852SeptemberJames Douglas appointed lieutenant-governor of the Colony of Queen Charlotte’s Island.
1852Nov. 10Grand Trunk Railway of Canada incorporated.
1853Feb. 8Oregon Territory split into Oregon and Washington Territories. Isaac Ingalls Stevens appointed governor of the latter, John P. Gaines remains as the elected governor of the former.
1853Oct. 6Thomas Geo. Shaughnessy born in Milwaukee, Wisc.
1855Hudson’s Bay Company servant Joseph Morrell finds gold in the Columbia River near Fort Colvile.
1855Begins the two year-long “Cayuse War” between the Natives of the Northwest and the United States. Military Waggon Roads built from Wallula on the Columbia near the mouth of the Snake River, to Forts Okanagan and Colville.
1855Oct. 17Judith River (Lame Bull, or Fort Benton) Treaty negotiated between the United States (as represented by Washington territorial governor Isaac I. Stevens and A. Cummings) and the tribes of the “Blackfoot Nation,” “Gros Ventre,” “Nez Percé,” and “Salish,” assigned territories to the Tribes.
1856Gold found near the mouth of the Pend d’Oreille River in what is now southern BC.
1856First gold rushers arrive in New Caledonia, today’s British Columbia.
1856Apr. 15U.S. Congress ratifies the Judith River Treaty.
1857British Army’s Canadian Rifles stationed at Upper Fort Garry until 1861.
1857Hudson’s Bay Coy. begin to build Fort Pend d’Oreille (later, Shepherd) on the Columbia River near the Boundary, opposite the mouth of the Pend d’Oreille.
1857Feb. 10David Thompson dies at Montréal.
1857May 4Charlotte Thompson dies at Montréal.
1857Dec. 27Hudson’s Bay Company Governor James Douglas of the Colony of Vancouver’s Island proclaims the illegality of mining without a licence in British territory.
1858Fraser, Cariboo gold rush begins.
1858Henry Youle Hind and Simon James Dawson lead the Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Exploration Expedition to the junction of the Qu’Appelle and Saskatchewan valleys.
1858A.T. Galt, a Unionist, appointed to the cabinet of John A. Macdonald’s and George Étienne Cartier’s Grand Coalition government.
1858Jan. 1Province of Canada declares all accounts to be kept in Canadian dollars equal to $US1.00, or 23.22 grains of gold (1.505 grams).
1858Mar. 5Pioneer and Democrat of Olympia, Washington Territory, first reports the discovery of gold in the Fraser River.
1858SpringGeneral Joel Palmer et al drive a herd of cattle and thirteen waggons full of supplies up the old Brigade Trail to Fort Kamloops to sell to Cariboo gold rushers.
1858Apr. 5The Columbia reaches San Francisco with news of gold in the Fraser River.
1858Late AprilThe Hudson’s Bay Company’s Otter arrives in San Francisco with a shipment of gold for the mint: the City explodes in excitement.
1858May 8James Douglas proclaims the Colonial right to seize any ship on the Fraser River and all its goods found lacking either a customs inspection certificate or Hudson’s Bay Company licence.
1858June 6S.S. Surprise arrives at Fort Hope loaded with gold rushers.
1858June 30Colonial authorities in Victoria proclaim that all miners in British territory had to obtain a licence and define the size of a “claim.”
1858JulyThe lead elements of the Royal Engineers land at Esquimalt near Victoria.
1858AugustLieutenant T.W. Blakiston of the Palliser Expedition crosses the North Kootenay Pass into the Rocky Mountain Trench. Names “the Steeples” Range.
1858Aug. 2An Act to provide for the Government of British Columbia, 1858 (21 Vict., c.99) passed by Westminster creating the Colony of B.C. Resolution published and proclaimed on November 3rd. New Westminster named as the capital. Hudson’s Bay Company monopoly in New Caledonia cancelled.
1858Aug. 3Lieutenant Blakiston severs his association with Palliser and sets off to explore southward along the “eastern slopes” of the Rockies.
1858Aug. 13Commissioners begin surveying the International Boundary from Robert’s Point.
1858Aug. 14Seven Salish killed by gold rushers at “The Battle of Boston Bar” near Fort Hope.
1858Aug. 30Governor Douglas appoints Richard Hicks and O-J Travaillot as Gold Commissioners at Fort Yale and Fort Dallas (Lytton), respectively.
1858Late Summer:Lieutenant-Colonel Richard Clement Moody instructs some troops of his Royal Engineers to establish a camp near Fort Hope
1858Nov. 19Governor James Douglas proclaims the English Law Act creating the Colony of British Columbia at Fort Langley, briefly the capital. Matthew Baillie Begbie, Judge of the Supreme Court of British Columbia, in attendance. Also, Hudson’s Bay Company’s exclusive privelege to trade in New Caledonia proclaimed revoked.
1859The Jesuits accept the offer of the Congregation of Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate to assist in the running of the missions in the Pacific watershed.
1859Father C.J-B.F. Pandosy of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate establishes the Okanagan Mission at L’Anse au Sable near what is today Kelowna in the Okanagan Valley.
1859Geologist Dr. Hilary Bauerman describes “the Ledge” on Kootenay Lake. The Royal Engineers raise the Church of St. John the Divine at Fort Langley. (In 1882 it was dismantled, made into a raft, floated across the Fraser and re-assembled at Maple Ridge.)
1859U.S. Army establishes Fort Colville on the Colville River just upstream from the Columbia.
1859The Earl of Southesk, hunting his way through southern Rupert’s Land, noted the dearth of bison. Due to hide hunting to supply the American market.
1859Rupert’s Land: Fa. Pierre-Jean de Smet last visits the Ktunaxa.
1859Grand Duchy of Baden: Fritz Sick born.
1859Canada: Eastern Townships Bank founded. A.T. Galt.
1859East Kootenay, B.C.: Oblate fathers Memetrey and Bellecouer venture from their mission at St. Mary’s to visit the Ktunaxa on the Tobacco Plains.
1859Angus McDonald, chief clerk at Fort Colvile, completes building Fort Shepherd.
1859Feb. 14Oregon becomes a State.
1859May 13Edgar Dewdney arrives in Victoria, Colony of Vancouver’s Island.
1859May 22Hudson’s Bay Company’s licence to trade in North America expires. Allowed to continue to administer North American possessions for the British crown.
1859JuneJ.F. Allison arrives on the Fraser to pan gold.
1859SummerRoyal Engineers lay out a townsite around Fort Hope and possibly remake a few miles of the old Brigade Trail up the Nicolum Creek valley from Fort Hope.
1859Aug. 31Gold Fields Act for British Columbia set size of placer claims (25 lineal feet between high and low-water marks), created post of Gold Commissioner to act as all round government official to enforce laws, adjudicate cases, collect taxes, etc.
W.G. Cox, J.C. Haynes, J.B. Gaggin, A.C. Elliot, Thos. Elwyn, Peter O’Reilly, E.H. Sanders, P.H. Nind, H.M. Ball, Chartres Brew (Chief Gold Commissioner).
1859SeptemberCaptain John Palliser and (later) John W. Sullivan canoe down Kootenay Lake seeking an all-British route to the Coast.
1859Sep. 7Gold Fields Act proclaimed.
1859Sep. 17Royal Engineer Lieutenant H.S. Palmer, commissioned to roughly determine an alignment for a trail to Rock Creek, leaves Fort Hope in company with the Chief Factor of Fort Colvile, Angus McDonald.
1859OctoberAdam Beaur discovers gold on Soldiers’ Bar in the stream now called Rock Creek.
1859 OctoberLieutenant Palmer arrives at Rock Creek.
1859Nov. 19Hudson’s Bay Company signs Deed of Surrender turning Rupert’s Land over to the Crown.
1860Gold discovered in the Idaho District of Washington Territory.
1860Hudson’s Bay Coy. closes Fort Okanogon, instructing factor François Deschinquette to remove his stores and build a post on the Similkameen River in British Columbia.
1860Boundary Commission surveyors named Observation Mountain in today’s Grand Forks and named the region “Grande Prairie.”
1860Gold Rush on lower Fraser River peters out.
1860Riverboat service established to Fort Benton, Nebraska Territory.
1860circaLast hunt conducted at Head-Smashed-In buffalo jump in what is now the Province of Alberta.
1860JanuaryThe Colony of B.C.’s Legislative Council passes a comprehensive land ordinance which claimed for the Crown all lands within the Colony’s boundaries.
1860AprilGold rush to Rock Creek and neighbouring streams fairly underway as Captain Collins leads in a troop of 34 prospectors.
1860JuneJ.F. Allison and party arrive in the Similkameen.
1860JuneGeneral Joel Palmer delivers a herd of beeves to the Cariboo gold camps.
1860June 30Wm. Fernie arrives in Victoria from San Francisco.
1860JulyEdgar Dewdney awarded the contract to improve the old foot trail into a horse pack trail from Hope into the Similkameen River valley in the Colony of British Columbia. Sets to work with Walter Moberly. Quit in November due to lack of funds.
1860July 16New Westminster incorporated as a City.
1860Sep. 1Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, dedicates the cornerstone of the Parliament Building in Ottawa.
1860Sep. 7George Simpson dead.
1860Sep. 20J.F. Allison files a pre-emption on a quarter section of land in the Similkameen valley near today’s Princeton.
1860Sep. 20John Marston, Royal Engineer, retired, files a pre-emption in a quarter section on what is today the townsite of Princeton.
1860AutumnSergeant William McColl and his party of Royal Engineers complete Dewdney’s trail to the confluence of the Similkameen and the Tulameen and lay out “Prince’s Town” townsite on today’s Allison Flats near Princeton.
1860Sep. 24Governor James Douglas of B.C. arrives at the Rock Creek gold camp on his tour of inspection, resulting in immediate instructions to W.G. Cox to establish a Customs Post there.
1860Oct. 15J.C. Haynes arrives to assist W.G. Cox in the Customs House at Rock Creek.
1860DecemberSouthern Boundary Act sets import-export duties in the Colony of British Columbia.
1861Joint Boundary Commission completes it survey of the forty-ninth degree of Parallel from the “Gulf” of Georgia to the Great Divide.
1861William Shanks Gladstone leaves his employ with the HBC as a boat-builder at Fort Edmonton.
1861B.C. colonial government instructs Captain J.M. Grant and the Royal Engineers to improve Dewdney’s trail into an all-weather waggon road.
1861Hudson’s Bay Coy. prohibits its servants from supplying liquor to Natives.
1861Our Lady of Good Hope Roman Catholic church in Hope is dedicated.
1861JanuaryThe Colonial Land Ordinance of 1860 modified to allow settlers to buy additional acreage to expand their homesteads to an even square mile.
1861Feb. 28The U.S. Congress splits Colorado Territory from Kansas Territory’s Arapahoe County.
1861Mar. 2U.S. Congress creates Dakota Territory from the Territory of Nebraska. Included what is now North and South Dakota, and Wyoming and Montana east of the Great Divide.
1861Mar. 10Emily Pauline Johnson (Tekahionwake) born near Brantford, Ontario.
1861AprilW.G. Cox registers land pre-emptions in the Okanagan valley for himself and J.C. Haynes.
1861Apr. 12Fort Sumner shelled; American Civil War begins.
1861JulyJ.F. Allison takes a Colonial contract to build a trail into the Okanagan Valley from the end of the Royal Engineers’ waggon road near today’s Princeton.
1861AugustDewdney and Moberly complete the Trail from Fort Hope to Rock Creek.
1861Nov. 8Designed by Captain J.M. Grant and raised by his Royal Engineers troops, Christ Church Anglican in Hope is consecrated.
1861DecemberHaving obtained permission, W.G. Cox builds a Customs outpost on the old Brigade Trail overlooking the narrows of Osoyoos Lake.
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