Crowsnest Highway



Periods:
2.5B BP - 1837
1837 - 1862
1862 - 1872
1872 - 1882
1882 - 1887
1887 - 1890
1890 - 1893
1893 - 1896
1896 - 1898
1898 - 1899
1899 - 1901
1901 - 1903
1903 - 1906
1906 - 1910
1910 - 1913
1913 - 1917
1917 - 1922
1922 - 1930
1930 - 1939
1939 - 1949
1949 - 1962
1962 - 1974
1974 - 2000
2000 - 2010
2010 - 2016



      
Time Line
for South-western Canada
Page 3 (1862 - 1872)


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1862Smallpox ravages the Native tribes of B.C.
1862Methodists Geo. Millward McDougall and wife Elizabeth establish their Victoria Mission on the North Saskatchewan River 75 miles downstream from Fort Edmonton.
1862Crews demarcating the 49th degree of Parallel eastward from the “Gulf” of Georgia arrive at Waterton Lakes.
1862The Hudson’s Bay Company posts Michael Phillipps to Tobacco Plains to assist factor John Linklater.
1862Over 1,000 men estimated to have trekked up the old Okanagan valley Brigade Trail northward to Williams Creek in the gold-rich Cariboo region.
1862Gold Commissioner W.G. Cox instructed to lay out a 20 square mile reserve for the Okanagan Band and a 10-mile reserve for the government on Lake Osoyoos.
1862Mar. 11W.G. Cox is transferred to the Cariboo. J.C. Haynes becomes the Gold Commissioner and Customs Officer in the Okanagan.
1862MayAssembly of Upper and Lower Canada: Macdonald/Cartier Coalition defeated.
1862May 31Bank of British Columbia created by Royal Charter. Incorporated in London. (Bought by the Canadian Bank of Commerce in 1900.)
1862Apr. 1W.H. Lowe arrives at Lake Osoyoos to assist Commissioner Haynes.
1862AugustBank of British Columbia opens its office in Victoria.
1862Aug. 2Victoria incorporated as a City.
1862Aug. 16Gold discovered in Grasshopper Creek on the southern fringes of the Blackfeet reservation in what is now Montana. Invasion begins.
1862Late in YearU.S. government declares an embargo on the export of cattle.
1863Father Chas. Pandosy, OMI, establishes first apple orchard in Okanagan Valley at L’Anse au Sable mission.
1863Fr. Constantin Scollen, OMI, first meets Niitistapi.
1863U.S. government modifies the cattle export embargo to allow the export of animals raised in American territory bounded by the Pacific.
1863Most placer gold ever reported recovered in a single year in British Columbia: an estimated $3.9 million.
1863Mar. 4Idaho Territory created from eastern Washington Territory. Captial at Lewiston.
1863June 15Hudson’s Bay Company shares offered for Public sale for first time. Edward Watkin and the International Financial Society of London buy them all leading to re-organization of the Company.
1863July 1Treaty for the Settlement of Claims with the Hudson’s Bay Company, etc. signed. Proclaimed March 5, 1864.
1863AutumnGeorge Findlay reveals to John Linklater, the Hudson’s Bay Coy. factor at Tobacco Plains, the existence of gold in Wild Horse Creek.
1863NovemberGold Commissioner Haynes informs New Westminster of the rumour of gold in Wild Horse Creek.
1864American Fur Company under Pierre Chouteau goes out of business due in part to the activities of rogue whiskey traders. Sells Fort Benton.
1864Factor Roderick McLean abandons François Deschinquette’s Hudson’s Bay Company post near today’s Cawston and builds another on the benches in the trench of Keremeos Creek.
1864The Colony of British Columbia enacts the Gold Export Tax of 1864.
1864Fr. Albert Lacombe, OMI, first meets the Niitsitapi.
1864Assembly of Upper and Lower Canada: Macdonald/Cartier Coalition returned to power..
1864MarchThe Boise News, The Walla Walla Statesman and The Lewiston Golden Age all print stories about Wild Horse gold.
1864SpringColony of B.C: Commissioner Haynes again informs New Westminster of the rumour of gold inWild Horse Creek.
1864SpringJohn T. Galbraith establishes his ferry on the Kootenay River at present-day Fort Steele, B.C.
1864Mar. 23 (25?)Jane Shaw “Jeanie” Moir and Edgar Dewdney wed in Christ Church, Hope.
1864Apr. 6?A.E. Kennedy succeeds Jas. Douglas as governor of the Colony of Vancouver’s Island (to November 19, 1866).
1864Apr. 21Frederick Seymour succeeds Jas. Douglas as governor of the Colony of British Columbia (to November 19, 1866).
1864Apr. 28In reponse to the threat of small-pox and the incursion into their territory of roadbuilders in the employ of Alfred Penderell Waddington, several Tsilhqot'in warriors led by Klatassine, attack builder’s camp at the Homathco ferry. Tim Smith the ferry man killed, and 13 others on the 30th. Three wounded and escape. Thus begins the “Chilcotin War.”
1864May 26Montana Territory created from part of Dakota Territory.
1864June 15Tobacco Plains, Colony of B.C.: John Linklater retires from Hudson’s Bay Company service and departs Tobacco Plains for the Coast, leaves Michael Phillipps in charge.
1864June 23John Linklater visits J.C. Haynes at Osoyoos and comfirms the existence of gold in Wild Horse Creek in the East Kootenays.
1864July 2Act of the U.S. Congress creates the Northern Pacific Railroad Company.
1864July 9Colony of B.C. political: J.C. Haynes appointed Stipendiary Magistrate and Justice of the Peace and posted to Wild Horse as Gold Commissioner and Customs Officer to the East Kootenays.
1864July 20Osoyoos, Colony of B.C.: J.C. Haynes and Constable Young depart for Wild Horse leaving constable W.H. Lowe in charge.
1864July 30A Saturday.
1864Aug. 10Fisherville, Colony of B.C.: Judge Haynes and Constable W.C. Young arrive on Wild Horse Creek.
1864Aug. 15Colony of B.C. Klatassine and eight other Tsilhqot'in warriors arrested.
1864Sep. 29 Quesnellemouth, Colony of B.C. political: Justice M.B. Begbie sentences five (nine?) Tsilhqot'in to hang at Quesnel Mouth, ending the Chilcotin War.
1864Sep. 1–9Canada political: Charolottetown Conference.
1864AutumnWild Horse Creek, Colony of B.C.: Robt. Dore, et al, complete the Victoria Ditch at Wild Horse Creek in what is now the East Kootenay.
1864OctoberSimilkameen valley, Colony of B.C.: Francis Xavier Richter and family settle at today’s Cawston.
1864OctoberColony of B.C. political: Judge J.C. Haynes appointed to the Legislative Council of British Columbia in New Westminster. Peter O’Reilly named as replacement.
1864Oct. 26Quesnellemouth, Colony of B.C.: Klatassine and eight other Tsilhqot'in warriors hanged. Ends the “Chilcotin War.”
1864WinterRupert’s Land: Scarlet fever kills an estimated 1100 Niitsi-tapi.
1865Colony of B.C.: Cariboo Road to Barkerville complete. Fraser River portion destroyed by railway construction in 1880s and not re-built until 1927.
1865Colony of B.C. political: Colony of British Columbia proclaims the Land Ordinance Act of 1865: allowed British subjects to provisionally acquire 160 acres of land; permitted 7-year long grazing leases.
1865Colony of B.C.: Edgar Dewdney finds Joe McCauley in residence on “Grande Prairie,” near today’s Grand Forks.
1865Edwin Bonner establishes his ferry and trading post on the Kootenai River at present-day Bonners Ferry, Idaho.
1865“Kootenai” Brown first sees the Waterton area of Rupert’s Land.
1865Blackfeet pressured to surrender the southern part of their reservation in what is now Montana. Illegal.
1865circaThe Jesuit Fa. Paschal Tosi begins making regular trips into Ktunaxa territory.
1865JanuaryColony of B.C. political: John T. Galbraith licenced to operate a ferry on the Kootenay River.
1865SpringSimilkameen valley, Colony of B.C.: F.X. Richter files a pre-emption on a 320 acre homestead in the Similkameen valley near today’s Cawston.
1865SpringColony of B.C. political: J.C. Haynes posted back to Osoyoos. Had customs house moved to the west neck of Osoyoos narrows.
1865SpringGovernor Frederick Seymour commissions Edgar Dewdney to extend his Trail from Rock Creek to the Wild Horse gold camp in the Rocky Mountain Trench.
1865Mar. 28The Legislative Council of B.C. passes An Ordinance to Ammend and Consolidate the Gold Mining Laws.
1865Apr. 1Constable John Jane (Jones?) appointed customs’ and postal agent at Fort Shepherd, B.C. (to July 27, 1868)
1865Apr. 9CSA General Lee surrenders at Appomattox, Virginia, ending the American Civil War.
1865May 22Judge Peter O’Reilly and Constable Arthur Wellesley Vowell arrive on the Wild Horse to take charge of the East Kootenays.
1865May 27Edgar Dewdney, Geo. Turner and crew arrive at Fort Shepherd to begin building the Wild Horse extention of Dewdney’s original trail.
1865JulyColony of B.C. political: J.C. Haynes trims the Okanagan Band’s reserve at Osoyoos.
1865Nov. 18The steamboat Forty Nine launched onto the Columbia at Colville Landing, fifty-odd kilometres below the Boundary.
1865DecemberThe Forty Nine beats her way up the Columbia River, crossing the Boundary to become the first mechanized boat to enter B.C.’s “Interior.”
1865Dec. 4On the Battle River, Rupert’s Land: Crees slaughter 112 Siksikah in camp.
1865Dec. 13The Forty Nine turned back by ice in the Columbia above Arrow Lakes.
1866The Colony of B.C.’s new Land Ordinance Act of 1866 forbade Indians from pre-empting lands without written permission from the Governor. Granted only once.
1866B.C.: Edgar Dewdney completes his Trail to Wild Horse Creek at a cost of $74,000.
1866Gold found in the Columbia’s “Big Bend” area. Colony commissions Walter Moberly, J. Turnbull and Rob’t Howell to blaze a trail thereto and assess the Kootenay region.
1866Wild Horse, B.C.: Post Office established.
1866Hostilities between the Ktunaxa and the Piikani over bison hunting privileges resume.
1866Michael Phillipps weds Rowen(a), daughter of Chief David (Michel?) of the Upper Kootenay Ktunaxa.
1866Osoyoos, B.C.: Roderick Finlayson of the Hudson’s Bay Company builds a store. Immediately taken over by T.J. Kruger.
1866J.C. Haynes appointed a Circuit Judge.
1866MarchRed Ochre Hill, Rupert’s Land: 300 Kainah killed while on a raid.
1866Apr. 16The Forty Nine passes Fort Shepherd heading up the Columbia on its first foray into B.C. this year.
1866Aug. 1Parliament in Wesminster passes the Act uniting the colonies of British Columbia and Vancouver Island under Governor Frederick Seymour (to June 10, 1869).
1866Nov. 19The Union of the colonies of B.C. and Vancouver Island proclaimed.
1867Constable W.H. Lowe pre-empts a homestead in the Okanagan.
1867Michael Phillipps pre-empts a homestead on Tobacco Plains in BC.
1867Rupert’s Land/N-WT.: Massacre of 12 American settlers by Niitsi-tapi near what is now Cowley, AB.
1867Mar. 29The British parliament passes 30 Victoria, Chapter 3. An Act for the Union of Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the Government thereof; for the purposes connected therewith. (British North America Act, 1867).
1867Mar. 30Russia sells Alaska to U.S. for $7.2 million.
1867July 1 Federal Political: BNA Act proclaimed. Canada confederated. Right Honourable the Viscount Monck appointed governor general.
1867July 1John Alexander Macdonald created Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George.
1867Aug. 7Federal political: election begins.
1867Sep. 20Sir John A. Macdonald and Conservatives elected federally. Honourable Alexander Tilloch Galt appointed Minister of Finance (to November 18).
1868Brothers William and Peter Creake Fernie begin ranching near Galbraith’s Ferry in the Rocky Mountain Trench.
1868B.C.: Begins a two-year gold rush on Forty-Nine Creek in BC’s West Kootenays.
1868Rupert’s Land/N-WT.: W.S. Lee, Joe Healy et al, lead prospecting expedition that loses its pliers in “Pincher” Creek.
1868Blackfoot begin armed resistance to the invasion of their reservation in what is now Montana by gold hunters.
1868May 25Capital of the United Colony of British Columbia moved from New Westminster to Victoria.
1868July 31Assent granted to 31-32 Victoria, chapter 105: An Act for enabling Her Majesty to accept the Surrender upon Terms of the Lands, Privileges, and Rights of “The Governor and Company of Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson’s Bay” and for admitting the same to the Dominion of Canada. (Rupert’s Land Act, 1868). Great Britain. By which the British government underwrites Canada’s £300,000 (plus 1/20th of land in “fertile belt” plus acreage around each existing fur fort) purchase of Rupert’s Land.
1868Sep. 3J.F. Allison and Susan Louisa Moir marry in the little parsonage of Christ Church Anglican in Hope.
1868Sep. 26J.C. Haynes and Charlotte Moresby wed in Hope.
1869Small Pox decimates Niitsi-tapi.
1869Representative Ignatius Donnelly of Minnesota urges United States Congress to press for the immediate annexation of Manitoba.
1869“One Arm” Reid and Mr. Ryan may have discovered gold around the present day site of Fairview.
1869The Colony of B.C. quits maintaining Dewdney’s trail.
1869Rupert’s Land: Ne:hiyawak peace mission to the Niitsi-tapi. Maskepatoon—Broken Arm—never returned.
1869Feb. 2The Right Honourable the Baron Lisgar (Sir John Young) appointed Canada’s governor general.
1869Mar. 8Henceforth the HBC has no legal authority in Rupert’s Land.
1869May 10The first North American transcontinental railroad completed when Central Pacific and Union Pacific officials drive the “golden spike” at Promontory, Utah.
1869June 10The British Governor of B.C., Frederick Seymour, dies.
1869June 14P.J. (Philip) Hankin appointed administrator of B.C.
1869June 22“An Act for the Temporary Government of Rupert’s Land and the North-Western Territories when united with Canada” receives royal assent in Westminster.
1869July 5Alex’r Tilloch Galt created a Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George,
1869Aug. 1Judge J.C. Haynes pre-empts a homestead at the north end of Lake Osoyoos.
1869Aug. 23Anthony Musgrave appointed governor of the United Colony of British Columbia (to July 20, 1871).
1869Sep. 10U.S. buys the American holdings of the Hudson’s Bay Company and its affiliate, the Puget’s Sound Agricultural Company for $450,000 and $200,000, respectively.
1869AutumnRupert’s Land: smallpox revisit the Niitsi-tapi killing some 630 Kainai, twice as many Piikani, and seriously weaken the Siksikah as the winter wore on.
1869Sep. 24“Black Friday”: Jay Gould’s and James Fisk’s attempt to corner gold market in collusion with Washington officials fails when Federal gold released for sale; Markets crash.
1869OctoberThe steamer Forty Nine damaged on Upper Columbia and limps away south across the Boundary never to return.
1869Oct. 1The Honourable Sir William McDougall appointed lieutenant-governor of Rupert’s Land and the Northwest Territories.
1869Oct. 11Along the Red River in Rupert’s Land/N-WT: Louis Riel and a group of concerned M’tis prevent Dominion surveyors from doing further work in the environs of the Métis’ “long lots”.
1869Nov. 2Sir William McDougall, having arrived at an HBC post on the Red River just above the Boundary, is confronted by a group of Métis and told to return to Pembina, Minnesota.
1869Nov. 2Métis seize Lower Fort Garry at the Red River Settlement in what is now Manitoba.
1869Nov. 19London: HBC formally tenders the surrender of Rupert’s Land. Confirmed by a Westminster Order-in-Council on June 23rd, 1870.
1869Nov. 23Louis “David” Riel proposes a provisional government to replace the Council of Assiniboia in Red River: proclaimed December 8. (”Red River Rebellion”)
1869Dec. 1Sir William McDougall, in his capacity as the lieutenant-governor designate of the North-West Territories, proclaims the Territories a part of Canada.
1869Dec. 5Brooklyn, N.Y.: Frederic Augustus Heinze born.
1869Dec. 6The Indian Commissioner of Montana Territory, General Alfred Sully, grants a permit to John Jerome Healy and Alfred Baker Hamilton for a “scientific expedition of exploration” into Niitsi-tapi lands north of the International Boundary.
1869Dec. 27Louis Riel succeeds as president of the provisional government of the North-West Territories.
1870B.C. Colonial government agent Peter O’Reilly and Chief Quinisco lay out the boundaries of the Chuchuwayha Indian Reserve #2 surrounding today’s Hedley.
1870Chief Factor Finlayson of the Hudson’s Bay Company orders the closure of Ft. Shepherd in BC.
1870Wm. Sam’l Lee establishes an HBC post at the mouth of Pincher Creek near what is now Brocket, Alberta.
1870A.R.C. Selwyn succeeds W.E. Logan as the director of the Geological Survey of Canada.
1870Robert Leslie Thomas Galbraith arrives to join his brothers at Galbraith’s Ferry near Wildhorse, B.C.
1870Jan. 23Montana Territory: Brevet Colonel Eugene M. Baker and elements of the 2nd U.S. Cavalry massacres Heavy Runner’s Piikani clan.
1870Mar. 4Louis Riel’s administration executes Thomas Scott at Fort Garry in what was then still Rupert’s Land.
1870SpringJ.J. Healy and A.B. Hamilton return to Fort Benton with a bonanza of hides from north of the Boundary: the invasion of the N-WT by whiskey traders begins.
1870SpringRupert’s Land/N-WT: SmallPox bedevils the Niitsi-tapi.
1870Apr. 6Federal Order-in-Council approves formation of North-West Mounted Police.
1870May 12The Manitoba Act, 1870, receives royal assent. Creates Canada’s fifth province, and the North-West Territories.
1870May 20Adams Geo. Archibald appointed lieutenant-governor of Manitoba.
1870SummerChief factor Richard Chas. Hardisty of HBC Fort Edmonton dispatched several “Red River carts” with part of the winter’s fur collection south down the “Old North Road” to Fort Benton on the Missouri River. south down the Road to the Missouri. The experiment was not repeated.
1970SummerJoe Kipp and James Willard Schultz establish Fort Stand-Off on what is now the Kainaas’ Reserve in southern Alberta for the purposes of trafficking in “whisky.”
1870June 23Order of Her Majesty in Council at Windsor admitting Rupert’s Land and the North Western Territory into the Union.
1870July 15Great Britain transfers Rupert’s Land and the North-West Territories to Canadian jurisdiction.
1870July 15Order-in-Council proclaiming Manitoba Act, thus Manitoba and the North-West Territories admitted into the Dominion of Canada: Ottawa.
1870July 30Adams Geo. Archibald appointed lieutenant-governor of the North-West Territories. Soon dispatches Captain William Francis Butler of the British Army to reconnoitre the N-WT for a year.
1870Aug. 24Colonel Garnet Joseph Wolseley and his Red River Expeditionary Force arrives at Fort Garry, Manitoba. Louis Riel and two of his key supporters had fled into exile.
1870Sep. 2Lieutenant-Governor Adams Geo. Archibald arrives at Fort Garry, the seat of government of Manitoba.
1870Sep. 17Louis Riel returns to Manitoba to assist the Métis and Archibald form a working government in the province. Stays for two years.
1870Oct. 21Lieutenant-Governor Archibald appoints first three members of the first Executive and Legislative Council of the N-WT and Rupert’s Land: Quebec Superior Court Judge F.G. Johnson, Pascal Breland of Red River, and Donald A. Smith of the HBC.
1870AutumnJoe Kipp and Charlie Thomas establish Fort Kipp on what is now the north-eastern corner of the Kainaa Reserve in southern Alberta for the purposes of trafficking in “whisky.”
1870Oct. endNiitsi-tapi/Blackfoot and Newiyawak/Cree fight on what is now Indian Battle Park, Lethbridge.
1871North West Government Act enacted.
1871Sanford Fleming and his surveyors begin a few seasons’ work exploring the Canadian cordillera for a feasible railroad route.
1871Smallpox epidemic on the Prairies.
1871Fort Benton, Montana: 30,000 bison hides collected for shipment down the Missouri.
1871SpringN-WT: Healy and Hamilton open “Fort Hamilton” on the Kainai wintering grounds at the confluence of the Oldman and the St. Mary’s.
1871Apr. 25Order-in-Council resolves to create a federal lands act.
1871May 8Treaty of Washington; U.S. recognizes Canada as a nation.
1871May 16Order of Her Majesty in Council admitting British Columbia into the Union: Windsor.
1871June 8Hudson’s Bay Company vacates Fort Colvile; factor Angus MacDonald removes goods to Kamloops.
1871June 29British parliament grants assent to 34-35 Victoria, Chapter 28: An Act respecting the establishment of Provinces in the Dominion of Canada (The British North America Act, 1871).
1871July 5Honourable Joseph Wm. Trutch appointed lieutenant-governor of B.C. (to June 26, 1876).
1871July 20B.B. political: B.C. joins the Canadian confederation. Lieutenant-Governor Trutch forms a cabinet to run the province until an election can be organized. The Constitution Act of 1871 creates the Kootenay Electoral District with 2 members: John Andrew Mara and Chas. Todd.
1871Aug. 3Treaty No. 1 (Stone Fort Treaty) signed at Lower Fort Garry on Red River between HRH Victoria and the Saulteaux, Swampy Crees (Red River) and Chippewas.
1871Aug. 21Treaty No. 2 (Manitoba Post Treaty) between HRH Victoria and the Ojibway of the Souris and Assiniboine River watersheds.
1871AutumnMethodist missionary John Chantler McDougall and his brother, David, bring herd of horses from Montana Territory to Fort Victoria, N-WT.
1871Nov. 13B.C. political: John Foster McCreight selected conservative premier of B.C.
1871Dec. 13Emily Carr born at Victoria.
1871Dec. 19Federal political: District of Yale; Chas. Frederick Houghton (Liberal) (s)elected.
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