Crowsnest Highway



Periods:
2.5B BP - 1837
1837 - 1862
1862 - 1872
1872 - 1882
1882 - 1887
1887 - 1890
1890 - 1893
1893 - 1896
1896 - 1898
1898 - 1899
1899 - 1901
1901 - 1903
1903 - 1906
1906 - 1910
1910 - 1913
1913 - 1917
1917 - 1922
1922 - 1930
1930 - 1939
1939 - 1949
1949 - 1962
1962 - 1974
1974 - 2000
2000 - 2010
2010 - 2016



      
Time Line
for South-western Canada
Page 4 (1872 - 1882)


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1872Dominion Land Act, Chap. 23, 35 Victoria.
1872“An Act respecting the Canadian Pacific Railway, 1872,” passed. The railway syndicate granted $30 million, 50 million acres and perpetual tax exemption.
1872Sanford Fleming declares that the Crowsnest Pass is the preferable railroad route through the Canadian Rockies.
1872B.C.: Hudson’s Bay Company abandons Fort Hope.
1872N-WT.: Asa Sample and Howell Harris to establish a trading post on the Highwood River for I.G. Baker and Company.
1872Chimney Coulee, N-WT: Kainai burn Isaac Cowley’s HBC fort in battle with Assiniboines.
1872Fort Benton, Montana: 40,000 bison hides collected.
1872Fort Benton, Montana: Nick Sheran delivers first load of “Belly” River coal.
1872England: Captain William Francis Butler publishes the Great Lone Land about his expedition into the Prairies of the N-WT.
1872Canada Political: Dr. Israel Wood Powell appointed as the federal Superintendent of Indian Affairs for B.C. (until 1890)
1872B.C.: W.H. Lowe leaves his posting at Osoyoos to marry Ella Simpson and take a new posting at the Customs House at New Westminster in 1873.
1872B.C.: John T. Galbraith pre-empts 320 acres on Joseph’s Prairie.
1872Feb. 23Louis Riel and Ambroise Lépine find it advisable to accept $1,000 each to quit Manitoba.
1872Apr. 9Francis G. Johnson appointed lieutenant-governor of Manitoba and the North-West Territories. Refused to surrender his judgeship in the Province of Quebec and his appointment was rescinded before comfirmation. Archibald continued as lieutenant-governor of N-WT.
1872May 5Charlotte Haynes dies in her mother’s home in New Westminster from complications after giving birth to Fairfax Moresby Haynes on Feb. 10.
1872June 25The Right Honourable Earl of Dufferin appointed Canada’s governor-general.
1872July 20Federal political: election begins.
1872SeptemberThe Hudson’s Bay Company instructs factor John Tait to close the post near today’s Keremeos and remove himself and his stores to Fort Kamloops.
1872SeptemberEdgar Dewdney (Conservative) declared elected MP for the District of Yale.
1872Sep. 3Macdonald returned to power as Conservative prime minister of Canada.
1872NovemberAbandoned Hudson’s Bay Company Fort Shepherd burned.
1872Dec. 2Alexander Morris proclaimed lieutenant-governor of Manitoba and Commissioner of the North-West Territories.
1872Dec. 20B.C. political: Premier McCreight resigns after non confidence vote.
1872Dec. 23B.C. political: Amor de Cosmos (alias William Alexander Smith) replaces McCreight as conservative premier of B.C.
1872/3WinterMichael Phillipps builds a federal government cabin on Joseph’s Prairie.
1873 William Fernie appointed gold commissioner for the east Kootenay and the Provincial Constable at Perry Creek gold camp.
1873Peter Creake Fernie becomes the superintendent of the Walla Walla/Dewdney Trail from Galbraith’s Ferry to the Boundary.
1873Michael Phillipps and John Collins become the first recorded Caucasians to top the Crowsnest Pass.
1873First Hutterite evaluation of North America, to USA.
1873Canadian Militia Lieutenant-Colonel Patrick Robertson-Ross recommends that Canada build a string of seven military posts manned by 500 mounted troops between the Red River and the Rockies.
1873Manitoba: Stoney Mountain prison built.
1873Fort Benton, Montana: 40,000 bison hides collected.
1873Fort Benton, Montana: Charles Edward Conrad and his brother, Wm. G., buy the I.G. Baker and Bro. Company and rename it the I.G. Baker and Company.
1873N-WT.: B.C.: The Hudson’s Bay Company leases its Keremeos buildings to Barrington Price.
1873Constantin Scollen and Léon Doucet establish Mission Notre Dame de la Paix on the Swift (Elbow) River in Piikani territory west of present-day Calgary, AB.
1873Mar. 8N-WT: Order in Council issued at Fort Garry declares Territories “dry.”
1873Mar. 26Barrington Price granted a 356-acre pre-emption in the Keremeos Creek valley near its confluence with the Similkameen, and in July buys another half-section in the Similkameen valley.
1873Apr. 2The “Pacific Scandal” breaks. Allegations in Parliament that Hugh Andrew Montagu Allan’s Canadian Pacific Railway Company, at the time competing with the Inter-Ocean Railway Company for the contract to build the Canadian trans-continental railroad, paid illegal contributions into the re-election campaign coffers of the Conservative Party.
1873SpringH.E. Seelye arrives as customs officer to occupy the federal cabin on Joseph’s Prairie.
1873MaySurvey of International Boundary westward across the Plains from the Red River begins.
1873May 3Assent given to “An Act to establish The Department of the Interior” in Canada, “to oversee the evolution of the North-West Territories” (Titley).
1873May 23Act establishing the North-West Mounted Police receives royal assent: introduced May 3 (April 28th?).
1873May 23Department of the Interior given responsibility for administering the N-WT. Council of the North-West Territories no longer under the jurisdiction of the lieutenant-governor of Manitoba.
1873May 23Fa. Pierre-Jean de Smet dies at St. Louis, Missouri.
1873SummerWilliam Samuel Lee “discovers” the cold sulphur springs at present day Frank, AB.
1873June 1(11?)A band of “wolfers” styling themselves the “Spitzee Cavalry,” massacre of 22 members of Little Soldier’s band of Nakota (Assiniboine) in the Cypress Hills of the N-WT.
1873July 1Honourable Sir Alexander Campbell appointed federal Minister of the Interior.
1873Aug. 30Order-in-Council constituting the N-WMP issued by Governor General the Earl of Dufferin.
1873Sep. 18Cooke and Company, promoters and financiers of the Northern Pacific Railroad, closes its doors.
1873Sep. 19“Black Friday”: Stock prices begin to collapse as “The Great North Amercian Financial Panic” seizes Wall Street when trading suspended on shares of Cooke and Company of Philadelphia.
1873Sep. 25First nine officers of N-WMP hired. Lt. Col. W. Osborne Smith appointed first (temporary) Commissioner of the N-WMP (to October 17, 1873).
1873Oct. 3Treaty 3 (North-West Angle Treaty) between HRH Victoria and the Saulteaux.
1873Oct. 18George Arthur French, C.M.G., appointed second (first permanent) Commissioner of the N-WMP (to July 21, 1876).
1873NovemberThe Allison family moves from the Similkameen valley to “Sunnyside” at Westbank in the Okanagan valley.
1873NovemberMethodists John Chantler McDougall and wife Abagail establish a Mission at what is now Morleyville, AB. Begin a sustenance ranching operation.
1873Nov. 1First of N-WM Police begin arriving at Lower Fort Garry, Manitoba.
1873Nov. 5The Conservative government of John Macdonald resigns in favour of the Liberals led by Alexander Mackenzie.
1873Nov. 7Honourable David Laird appointed Minister of the Interior.
1874Canadian Pacific Railway Act proclaimed offering $12,000 and 20,000 acres of land for every mile of mainline completed. Minister of Mines portfolio created in B.C. cabinet. John T. Galbraith builds a store near the customs house on Joseph’s Prairie and begins acquiring the surrounding land. John Andrew Mara, M.P. for southern B.C., urges Ottawa to build a military post in Ktunaxa territory. Michael Phillipps, Jim Morrissey, William Sanders blaze a trail up the Elk River, Michel Creek and over the Crowsnest Pass.
1874James Lenihan appointed a superintendent of Indian Affairs for B.C., stationed in New Westminster. (until 1880) He was junior to Dr. Powell in Victoria.
1874Lawrence Vankoughnet appointed deputy superintendent-general of Indian Affairs (till 1893).
1874John McDougall commissioned by the Minister of Justice to visit western Tribes and explain to them the coming of the North-West Mounted Police.
1874Fathers Scollen and Doucette establish the parish of St. Croix in what is now southern Alberta.
1874JanuaryThe Canadian Pacific Surveys office in Ottawa burns. All contents lost.
1874Jan. 22Federal political: Alexander Mackenzie and Liberals elected.
1874Jan. 22Edgar Dewdney (Conservative) declared elected as the federal representative for the District of Yale, B.C.
1874Feb. 9B.C. political: Premier De Cosmos resigns to contest Federal election.
1874Feb. 11B.C. political: George Anthony Boomer Walkem selected conservative premier.
1874JuneN-WT: Nick Sheran has a ferry rigged up on the Belly/Oldman at Whoop-Up.
1874June 19Fort Dufferin, Manitoba: Rendezvous of first and second contingents of N-WMP.
1874SummerN-WT.: Dr. Geo. Mercer Dawson in employ of Boundary Commission notes petroleum seeps in the Waterton area.
1874July 8N-WM Police begin Great March west from Lower Fort Garry and Emerson, Manitoba.
1874SeptemberBoundary demarcation complete, the Joint Boundary Commission disbands.
1874Sep. 7N-WT: N-WMP arrive at Seven Persons Creek.
1874Sep. 15N-WT: Treaty 4 (Qu’Appelle Treaty) between HRH Victoria and the Plains Newiyawak/Cree, Saulteaux, and Assiniboines.
1874AutumnN-WT: Father Léon M. Fouquet and Brother John Burns arrive on the St. Mary’s River in the Rocky Mountain Trench, acquire property from John Shaw and by October had raised a two-storey log house which they name “Mission de St. Eugene.”
1874AutumnJoe Kipp abandons Fort Kipp at the confluence of the Belly and Oldman rivers in what is now southern Alberta.
1874Sep. 22N-WT: Col. Geo. French breaks up his N-WM Police command, sending two divisions back to Manitoba and encamping the rest on the Prairies whilst he, Macleod and Brisebois set out for Fort Benton to get supplies and a guide.
1874Sep. 24Fort Benton, MT: Jerry Potts begins his association with N-WMP.
1874Oct. 9N-WT: N-WMP arrive at Ft. Whoop-Up.
1874Oct. 13N-WT: N-WM Police establish Ft. Macleod.
1875Richard and Martin Fry buy Edwin L. Bonner’s ferry and trading post on what’s now the Idaho reach of the Kootenai River.
1875Ktunaxa reach an agreement with Niitsitapi permitting the former to hunt bison on the Eastern Slopes of the Rockies.
1875B.C.: Province funds the improvement of the path up the Elk and over the Crowsnest Pass.
1875N-WT: Joe McFarland and Henry Olson drive two small herds of dairy cows into the Fort Macleod vicinity.
1875N-WT: I.G. Baker Co. of Fort Benton, Montana Territory, delivers a herd of cattle to the N-WMP at Forts Macleod and Calgary, N-WT.
1875John McDougall again commissioned to visit western Tribes and explain the rôle of the N-WM Police.
1875JanuaryEmily Pittenreigh comes to the Okanagan as J.C. Haynes’ second wife.
1875Feb. 17The N-WMP put J.D. Weatherwax, the last whiskey trader in Blackfoot country, out of business.
1875SpringThe Province of British Columbia petitions Britain’s Colonial Secretary, Lord Carnarvon, to force the Dominion to honour its obligation to build a waggon road or railroad through to the Coast.
1875Apr. 8Parliament of Canada enacts 38 Victoria, Chapter 49; the North-West Territories Act. The Territories now separated politically from Manitoba, with their own lieutenant-governor and council.
1875Apr. 10Order-in-Council authorizes N-WMP to establish fort at the confluence of the Bow and Elbow Rivers.
1875JuneFather Napoléon Grégoire arrives at “Mission de St. Eugene” in BC.
1875June 1At Fort William in Ontario, the sod was turned inaugurating construction of the Canadian trans-continental railroad.
1875JulyN-WMP complete Fort Walsh in the Cypress Hills.
1875Aug. 25Approx.: North-West Mounted Police establish Fort Brisebois, N-WT (soon renamed ‘Fort Calgary’).
1875SeptemberHBC dismantles Bow River Post farther up the Bow and moves it down to Fort Brisebois.
1875SeptemberThe I.G. Baker and Co. build a post on the Elbow River just south of Fort Brisebois.
1875Sep. 11B.C. political: G.A. Walkem and conservatives returned to power. Kootenay Electoral District: Arthur Wellesley Vowell, Chas. Gallagher.
1875Sep. 24Treaty 5 between HRH Victoria and the Swampy Cree and Saulteaux.
1876CircaBarrington Price builds a grist mill by his ranch house, the former Hudson’s Bay Company post in the Keremeos Creek valley.
1876CircaPost Office opens bureau in the Allison ranch house near today’s Princeton: S.L. Allison post mistress.
1876CircaAlexander Ewan builds first salmon cannery on the Fraser River (near New Westminster).
1876The governor-general, Lord Dufferin, visits Victoria to dissuade B.C. from seceding from the Dominion.
1876William Fernie appointed the local Customs Collector in the East Kootenay, BC.
1876Arthur Wellesley Vowell resigns as MPP for the Kootenay Electoral District in BC. Replaced by Wm. Cosgrove Milby.
1876The Kainai remember this year as “ikakainiskoy,” “many buffalo.”
1876Geo. Emerson establishes the first ranching operation in the N-WT around Fort Macleod.
1876The Rev. Geo. Millward McDougall perished in a blizzard near his mission at Morleyville, on the Bow River in what is now Alberta. His son, John Chandler McDougall, active this year explaining treaty procedures to Natives in what is now southern Alberta.
1876Jan. 27B.C. political: G.A.B. Walkem resigns as premier after non-confidence vote.
1876FebruaryBattleford chosen as capital of the N-WT. Construction begins on administration building.
1876Feb. 1B.C. political: Andrew Charles Elliott selected as premier.
1876Mar. 23B.C.: H.E. (Thomas?) Seelye died and buried at Joseph’s Prairie in BC. Had been customs officer there since spring, 1873.
1876Apr. 12Indian Act (An Act to amend and consolidate the laws respecting Indians) receives royal assent.
1876Apr. 12Canadian Parliament enacts 39 Victoria chapter 21, creating the District of Keewatin.
1876June 10J.F. Allison appointed Justice of the Peace in Yale District, BC.
1876June 25Battle of Greasy Grass (Little Big Horn). Gen’l Geo. Armstrong Custer and elements of his 7th Cavalry annihilated by Sitting Bull and his Lakota and Tsistsistas (Cheyenne) warriors.
1876June 27B.C. Political: Honourable A.N. Richards commissioned lieutenant-governor.
1876July 1N-WT: Dave Akers buys Fort whoop-Up from J.J. Healy.
1876July 22Col. G.A. French fired from N-WMP. James Farquharson Macleod, C.M.G., appointed third Commissioner of the N-WMP (to October 31, 1880).
1876AugustIn the Sand Hills Isapo-Muxika (Crowfoot) and Stamiksoopi (Sitting Bull) exchanged tobacco at a friendship dance.
1876Aug. 18 (23?)Treaty No. 6 (Part 1) signed at Fort Carlton between HRH Victoria and the Plains Cree, the Woodland Cree, and the Assiniboines.
1876Sep. 9Treaty No. 6 (Part 2) signed at Fort Pitt between HRH Victoria and the Plains Cree, the Woodland Cree, and the Assiniboines.
1876Oct. 7The North-West Territories Act of 1875 (An Act to amend and consolidate the Laws respecting the North-West Territories) proclaimed. N-WT separated administratively from Manitoba. David Laird appointed lieutenant-governor and “Indian Superintendent” of the North-West Territories.
1876Oct. 24Honourable David Mills appointed Minister of the Interior.
1876Nov. 17First Sioux appear at Wood Mountain at Jean-Louis Legare’s store.
1876Nov. 27Members of the first Territorial Council (appointed) sworn in at Livingstone Barracks (Swan River).
1877Joseph Whitehead brings the first locomotive into the Canadian West in the Red River valley to build the Dominion government’s “Pembina Branch.”
1877The North-West Territories Act amended to give French and English equal status in council and in the courts.
1877Osoyoos, B.C.: Customs House burns.
1877Coal Banks, N-WT.: Marcella Sheran arrives to help her brother in the mining business.
1877N-WT.: “Kootenai” and Olivia Brown settle in Waterton area of the N-WT.
1877Coal Mines Regulation Act passed in B.C.
1877Mar. 8Thursday. Commissioner David Laird summons the North-West Council to Livingstone Barracks, Swan River, N-WT.
1877MaySitting Bull (Tatanka-Iyotonka) and hundreds of his Hunkpapa Lakota followers arrive at Wood Mountain, N-WT.
1877AugustLieutenant-Governor David Laird visits Fort Macleod, N-WT.
1877Aug. 1N-WT political: Seat of the North-West Territorial government formally transferred to Battleford.
1877Aug. 2Sir James Douglas dies in Victoria, BC.
1877Sep. 22Treaty No. 7 (Part 1) signed at Blackfoot Crossing, N-WT, between HRH Victoria and the Blackfoot Nations, T’suu Tina (Sarcee) and the Stoneys.
1877OctoberWilliam Cosgrove Milby, MPP for the Kootenay Electoral District, dies.
1877Dec. 4Treaty No. 7 (Part 2) signed at Fort Maclead, N-WT, by chiefs who could not attend the main signing at Crowsfoot Crossing.
1877Dec. 20Robert Leslie Thomas Galbraith elected as MPP for Kootenay District, BC.
1878Minerals Act of 1878 passed in B.C.
1878P.R. Neale and S.B. Steele register the first cattle brand in the N-WT: “NWMP.” (!!? See Jan. 29, 1880)
1878Toronto Stock Exchange incorporated.
1878U.S. government passes the Bland-Allison Act requiring the mint to buy $2–4 million’s in silver each month. Never more than the minimum purchased, price of silver continues to decline.
1878The global economy slips into a recession.
?1878?N-WT.: Marcella Sheran weds Joseph McFarland of the Pioneer Ranch near Fort Macleod.
1878B.C. Constitutional Act of 1871 amended to give the Kootenay Electoral District but one MPP: Robert Leslie Thomas Galbraith.
1878U.S. Army blockades the migration of the buffalo in an effort to starve the Sioux into submission. All Plains Indians affected. Few Bison reach Canadian territory.
1878Norman T. Macleod, brother of Colonel James Macleod of the N-WM Police, appointed Indian Agent for Treaty 7 nations.
1878James Jerome Hill, general manager of the St. Paul and Pacific Railroad, welcomes George Stephen and Donald Smith to his road’s board of directors.
1878Dr. Geo. Mercer Dawson of the Geological Survey of Canada examines coal measures in the Crowsnest area.
1878Frederick Billings, et al, reorganize the Northern Pacific Railroad and begin pushing its railheads west from Bismarck and east from Wallula Junction, Washington Territory, near the confluence of the Snake and Columbia Rivers.
1878N-WT.: N-WMP establishes its “Remount Station” in the Pincher Creek valley. Police plant oats and supply hay to other posts. Mart Holloway builds shack in the valley, as do Jack Collins and “Mr. Allen.” Wm. Sam’l Lee likely settled at the Creek’s mouth.
1878N-WT.: N-WMP moves its headquarters from Fort Macleod to Fort Walsh in the Cypress Hills.
1878Feb. 6Governor-general in Council approves and accepts Treaty No. 7.
1878SpringMacleod Island and Fort Macleod flooded.
1878May 22B.C. political: Election unseats A.C. Elliott and supporters. Galbraith and Gallagher returned but amendment to the Constitutional Act of 1871 eliminates Gallagher’s seat.
1878May 25England: A.T. Galt promot4ed to Grand-Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George.
1878June 25B.C. political: C.A. Elliott resigns as premier in favour of G.A.B. Walkem.
1878Aug. 18First issue of P.G. Laurie’s Saskatchewan Herald, Battleford, N-WT.
1878SeptemberEdgar Dewdney (Conservative) declared re-elected as MP for the District of Yale, BC.
1878Sep. 17Federal political: Conservatives of J.A. Macdonald elected. Macdonald defeated in home-riding and parachuted in to win a Victoria by-election.
1878Sep. 19George Wallace Hall registers a pre-emption near what is today Creston, BC.
1878AutumnMi’kai’stowa (Red Crow) begins negotiations to abandon the original Kainai Reserve in the valley of the Bow River and re-establish it in the present location, west of Lethbridge, AB.
1878Oct. 17Right Honourable Sir J.A. Macdonald appointed Minister of the Interior.
1878Nov. 25The Most Honourable Marquis of Lorne appointed governor-general of Canada.
1878DecemberBegins the bitter winter for hungry western Tribes.
1878Dec. 5Last spike driven on the “Pembina Branch” rail line built for Ottawa between St. Boniface and Emerson, Manitoba, by Joseph Whitehead.
1879The St. Paul, Minnesota and Manitoba Railway reaches Emerson on the Manitoba boundary to connect there with the Canadian government’s “Pembina Branch”: St. Boniface in the old Red River Colony now connected to St. Paul, Minnesota.
1879Mountain Mill set up on the Castle River in the N-WT by John Kean for the Indian Branch of the Department of the Interior. Built and run by Wm. Shanks Gladstone.
1879 (or ‘80?)Anglican “Rev. Rural Dean” George McKay of the “Society for the Propagation of the Gospel׎ builds a house and a “day school” on the Piikani reserve, N-WT.
1879William Fernie named coroner and Assistant Commissioner for Lands and Works in the Electoral District of Kootenay, BC.
1879The Department of the Interior pays I.G. Baker and Co. to deliver 1,000 cattle to the Porcupine Hills near Fort Macleod for the starving Niitsitapi to hunt.
1879Great Britain embargos American beef in support of the Canadian cattle business.
1879Niverville, MB.: Wm. Hespeler builds first grain elevator in western Canada. Cylindrical.
1879Indian Branch sets up two small ranching operations in the N-WT, one on Pincher Creek, one near Calgary.
1879N-wT: Joshua Watson homesteads at “the bend” of the “Belly” River.
1879B.C.: Peter Creake Fernie contracted to build two bridges to carry the Crowsnest Pass trail over the Elk River.
1879N-WT.: A.P. Patrick notes petroleum seeps in Waterton area of the N-WT. Sent a sample to Ottawa.
1879JanuaryNicholas Flood Davin appointed to determine the best approach to educating western Natives. Report submitted to Vankoughnet in April.
1979FebruaryDavid Laird resigns as “Indian Superintendent.”
1879SpringN-WT: Niitsi-tapi and other plains peoples starving with failure of the bison population.
1879May 20Canada political: Honourable Sir Charles Tupper appointed Minister of Railways and Canals.
1879May 23J.J. Hill, George Stephen, Donald Smith and Norman Kittson form the St. Paul, Minneapolis and Manitoba Railroad Company in Minnesota. Leased the Canadian government’s “Pembina Branch” from St. Boniface, Manitoba, to the Boundary.
1879May 30Edgar Dewdney appointed Commissioner of Indian Affairs in the N-WT (to 1884).
1879JuneThe St. Paul, Minneapolis and Manitoba acquires the St. Paul and Pacific Railroad.
1879June 19Elliott Torrance Galt confirmed as secreatary and clerk to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Edgar Dewdney.
1879JulyLawrence Vankoughnet has Thos. Page Wadsworth appointed “inspector of agencies׎ in the N-WT.
1879SummerIndian Reserves Nos. 147A and 147B laid out for Piikani in the valley of the Oldman River.
1879SummerH.J Taylor established DIA “supply farm” near Pincher Creek, AB. Thos. Wright establishes a second farm near Fort Calgary.
1879Late SummerIndian Branch contracts the I.G. Baker Co. of Fort Benton, Montana Territory, to run a herd of cattle into the Porcupine Hills.
1879Sep. 29Francis Jones Bernard (Conservative) declared MP for the District of Yale, B.C.
1879EndMission St. Eugene comprises 552 acres of the St. Mary’s River valley in B.C.
1879EndBegins the “Snow Winter” on the Prairies.
1880Farwell (re-named “Revelstoke” in 1886) established.
1880N-WT.: Jim Bruneau, Isaac May and A.H. Lynch-Staunton establish a ranch on Pincher Creek. “Jug Handle” Smith upstream. Sam Sharpe and George Ives range government cattle herd nearby.
1880Norman Thos. Macleod appointed Agent to Treaty 7 tribes.
1880Under unsupportable hunting pressure, the bison population in the Judith Basin in present-day Montana crashes.
1880CircaFarm No. 21 established on Piikani Reserve.
1880Jan. 29P.R. Neale and S.B. Steele register the first cattle brand in the N-WT: the “71.” (!!? See 1878)
1880FebruaryEdgar Dewdney appointed Commissioner of Indian Affairs in the Province of Manitoba (in addition to his duties in the N-WT)
1880Mar. 19Wm. Winder registers the “double crank” brand in the N-WT.
1880AprilContractor D.O. Mills of California sends Andrew Onderdonk to B.C. to start construction of the CPR eastbound.
1880May 7Federal political: Assent given to the Indian Act, 1880 - “An Act to amend and consolidate the laws respecting Indians” creates the Department of Indian Affairs under the Minister of the Interior who is the Superintendent of Indian Affairs.
1880May 7Federal: Great North Western Telegraph Company incorporated.
1880May 11Federal political: Honourable Sir A.T. Galt assumes his duties as High Commissioner for Canada in London (to May 30, 1883).
1880May 14B.C.: Andrew Onderdonk commences construction of the Fraser River leg of the CPR at Emory’s Bar.
1880SummerB.C.: George Hearst comes to Kootenay Lake to examine “the Ledge.”
1880SummerN-WT: New reserve, IR #148, laid out for the Kainai between the Belly and the Waterton rivers in what is now southern Alberta. Ration house built.
1880SummerN-WT: Elliott Torrance Galt visits the “coal banks” on the Belly River. Took Samples.
1880Oct. 21Syndicate of George Stephen, J.J. Hill, J.S. Kennedy, R.B. Angus and D.A. Smith sign contract with Canadian government to complete the CPR within 10 years.
1880Nov. 1Acheson Gosford Irvine appointed fourth Commissioner of the N-WMP (to March 31, 1886).
1880Nov. 13Lieutenant-Governor Laird proclaims the Electoral Districts of Salisbury, Lorne and Kimberley in the N-WT.
1880Dec. 6Edmonton Bulletin first published.
1881Allison family returns to the Similkameen region after a sojourn of 8 years in the Okanagan at “Sunnyside.”
1881N-WT/B.C.: Dr. George Mercer Dawson of the Geological Survey of Canada examines the Crowsnest Pass area and the “coal banks” on the Belly River.
1881Federal political: Senator Peter McLaren buys Mountain Mill on the Castle River near today’s Cowley, AB, from the Dominion government.
1881IR 148, N-WT: Cree thieves make off with Kainai horses.
1881Gretna, MB.: The Ogilvie Milling Co. builds the first classic elevator in western Canada.
1881The N-WM Police establish a post on Police Flats near present day Bellevue, AB.
1881Max Brouilette begins stage coach service in N-WT: Coal Banks (now Lethbridge), Fort Macleod, Pincher Creek.
1881IR 148, N-WT: John Maclean of the Church Missionary Society arrived to proselytize on behalf of the Methodist denomination, and teach.
1881IR 148, N-WT: Anglican Reverend Samuel Trivett, also sponsored by the Church Missionary Society, arrives to proselytize and teach.
1881The T.C. Power Co. of Fort Benton, Montana Territory, abandons Fort Macleod, N-WT, to its Fort Benton competitor, the I.G. Baker Co.
1881Feb. 15“An Act Respecting the Canadian Pacific Railway, Victoria 41, Chapter 1” (“Pacific Railway bill”) ratified by the Federal parliament. CPR enchartered and given until May 1, 1891, to finish the line.
1881Feb. 16Upon the receipt of a $1 million surety bond, Charles Tupper, federal Minister of Railways, signs papers to create the third incarnation of the Canadian Pacific Railway with the CP syndicate of George Stephen, Duncan McIntyre, J.J. Hill, J.S. Kennedy, the Kohn, Reinach and Co. of Paris, and the Morten Rose and Co. of London.
1881Feb. 18CPR Company incorporated.
1881Mar. 1Hayter Reed appointed Indian Agent at Battleford.
1881Mar. 9First member elected to the North-West Council; Lawrence Clarke from the Electoral District of Lorne.
1881AprilThe first of some 2500 starving Kainai begin straggling onto Reserve 148.
1881AprilMaj. Albert Bowman Rogers engaged by the CPR to find a route through the southern Rockies.
1881Apr. 21Elliott Torrance Galt appointed Assistant Indian Commissioner for Manitoba and the North-West Territories.
1881MaySenator Matthew Henry Cochrane incorporates the Cochrane Ranche Company and establishes its headquarters some 20 miles up the Bow River west from Calgary, N-WT.
1881May 21Maj. “A.B.” Rogers locates a promising pass through the Selkirk Range. Unable to confirm.
1881June 21Honourable C.F. (Clement) Cornwall commissioned lieutenant-governor of B.C.
1881SummerRobert Evan Sproule locates “the Ledge” on BC’s Kootenay Lake and stakes his dog-legged Bluebell claim.
1881July 19Having been starved out of Canada, Sitting Bull surrenders at Fort Buford, Dakota Territory.
1881Aug/SepSir John Douglas Sutherland Campbell, the Marquis of Lorne, the governor-general of Canada and his entourage tour Canada’s West.
1881Sep. 9Marquis of Lorne, et al, at Blackfoot Crossing.
1881Sep.15Henry Villard (formerly Ferdinand Heinrich Gustav Hilgard) elected president of the Northern Pacific Railroad.
1881Sep. 17Marquis of Lorne, et al, arrive at Fort Macleod.
1881Oct. 3David Laird’s term as lietenant-governor of the N-WT ends.
1881Oct. 20Fred Stimson registers his “Bar U” brand in the N-WT.
1881DecemberThe Northern Pacific Railroad reached Pend Oreille Lake in what is now Idaho.
1881Dec. 1Andrew Onderdonk awarded the contract to built the CPR Mainline from Emory Bar in the Fraser River canyon to tidewater at Port Moody.
1881Dec. 3Edgar Dewdney succeeds as lieutenant-governor of the North-West Territories (to 1888).
1881Dec. 23Dominion Lands Regulations, cattle leases defined: 21 years, maximum $10.00 per 1000 acres per year to 100,000 acres; minimum 10 acres per head.
1881ChristmasA.T. Galt resigns as the Canadian High Commissioner to London. Rejected.
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